This set of Life Sciences Questions and Answers for Experienced people focuses on “Structure of Eukaryotic cell – 2”.
1. Spectrin and ankyrin are the example of ___________
c) Peripheral protein
d) Integral protein
Explanation: Spectrin and ankyrin are the peripheral proteins present in the membrane of RBC. Peripheral proteins are extrinsic proteins bound to membranes by electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions.
2. Glycophorin is a major multi-pass transmembrane protein of RBC.
Explanation: Glycophorin is a single pass transmembrane protein of RBC. It was the first transmembrane protein whose complete amino acid sequence was determined. These are present in abundance on the plasma membrane of RBC.
3. Name the technique which is used to visualize the distribution of the protein in the membrane?
a) Patch clamp technique
d) Freeze-fracture technique
Explanation: Freeze-fracture technique is used to visualize the protein distribution in the membrane by quickly frozen the specimen at -196°C and then split with a cold knife to expose the interior of the lipid bilayer and its embedded proteins.
4. Which of the following transport protein allows the transport of single solute from one side of the membrane to other?
a) Active transport
b) Passive transport
Explanation: Uniporters are uniport which mediates single noncoupled transport of single solute from one side of the membrane to other. Examples: glucose transporter (GLUT).
5. What is the function of antiporters?
a) Transfer of the second solute in the same direction
b) Transfer of the second solute in the opposite direction
c) Transfer of single solute
d) Transfer of solute through pores
Explanation: Antiporters are the co-transporter protein i.e. coupled transport of two solutes in opposite direction. Example: transport of calcium ion out of cardiac muscle cells.
6. Name the type of antibodies which are present in blood group ‘O’?
a) Anti-A and anti-B
Explanation: Blood group O does not have A or B antigen on the surface of their RBC, so their blood plasma contains both the antibodies anti-A and anti-B.
7. Which of the following transport mechanism does not use metabolic energy?
a) Secondary active transport
b) Primary active transport
c) Active transport
d) Passive transport
Explanation: Passive transport takes place along the concentration gradient without the use of metabolic energy while active transport takes place against the concentration gradient by using metabolic energy.
8. Which of the following glucose transporter works on the liver?
Explanation: GLUT is the glucose transporters; a carrier protein mediates the movement of glucose. GLUT-2 works on liver while GLUT-1 on erythrocyte, GLUT-3 on the brain, and GLUT-5 on the small intestine.
9. Name the family of transport protein which allows the water to cross the membrane?
a) Facilitated diffusion
b) Ion channels
d) Active transport
Explanation: Aquaporins are the water channels in the plasma membrane of the plants and animals which allow water and other small uncharged molecules to cross the membrane.
10. Which of the following ATPases are used to maintain the acidic pH of lysosomes and other vesicles?
d) ABC transporters
Explanation: V-ATPase is found in vacuolar membranes and is used to transport proton against a concentration gradient. These pumps maintain low pH by pumping protons from cytosolic face to exoplasmic face of the membrane.
11. Which of the following process is also known as cell drinking?
c) Clathrin-mediated endocytosis
d) Caveolae-mediated endocytosis
Explanation: All of the above options are the types of endocytosis, which is a process of engulfing macromolecules in the plasma membrane. Pinocytosis is fluid-phase endocytosis which is also known as cell drinking, ingestion of fluid and solutes in the form of small vesicles.
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