This set of Life Sciences Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Cancer”.
1. Name the cells which lost their control of the regulated division, differentiation, and apoptosis?
a) Tumor cell
b) Immune cell
d) Stem cells
Explanation: Tumor cells work opposite to normal cells; a normal cell has regulated division, differentiation, and programmed cell death. When the normal cell loses its ability to undergo apoptosis and regulated cell division, it becomes a tumor cell.
2. All tumor cells are cancerous cells.
Explanation: Tumor cells are of two types, benign tumor, and malignant tumor. The only malignant tumor is considered as cancerous cell while the benign tumor is clustered cells and cannot spread to other sites.
3. Name the process by which a malignant cell spread throughout normal cells?
Explanation: Malignant tumor is particularly considered as cancerous cell as they multiply through the normal cells and make them a cancerous cell, this process is called invasiveness.
4. Which of the following is NOT the type of cancer?
Explanation: Caspases is incorrect as caspases are protease enzyme which causes apoptosis, which is opposite to tumor formation. Carcinoma is endodermal/ectodermal tissue tumor, sarcoma is a tumor of mesodermal connective tissue, and leukemia is blood cancer.
5. What is the origin of the cancerous cells?
c) Stem cells
d) Mesodermal cells
Explanation: Cancer arises from a single abnormal cell or it has a monoclonal origin. It is initiated by the change in DNA sequences or change in the pattern of gene expression.
6. Name the process of transition from normal cells to cancerous cells?
Explanation: Normal cells are transformed into a cancer cell by a multistep process including genetic/epigenetic changes, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.
7. Which of the following is the characteristic of a cancer cell?
a) Density dependent inhibition
b) Contact inhibition
c) Loss of anchorage dependence
Explanation: Cancer cell loses contact inhibition, anchorage dependence, does not undergo apoptosis, become immortal, invasive and invade normal tissue in the body.
8. Arrange the following sequences of tumor development in the correct order?
a) 2, 3, 4, 1
b) 4, 3, 2, 1
c) 1, 2, 3, 4
d) 1, 3, 4, 2
Explanation: Tumor initiation starts with the change of normal cell to the cancerous cell then these cancerous cells travel to other cell and invade them, it comes under promotion and progression and then finally tumor is established.
9. What is angiogenesis?
a) Differentiation process
b) Growth factors
c) Contact inhibition
d) Blood vessel formation
Explanation: Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels in the cancerous cells. This process is needed to support the growth of a tumor by the supply of oxygen and growth factors.
10. Which of the following is NOT the example of proto-oncogenes?
Explanation: Rb is a tumor suppressor gene, which inhibits cell cycle progression while proto-oncogenes which help in cell division and reduce cell death.
11. Which of the following mutation causes Burkitt’s lymphoma?
a) Point mutation
b) Chromosomal translocation
Explanation: Burkitt’s lymphoma caused by the translocation of the part of a gene derived by the over-expression of proto-oncogenes. Translocation takes place between the segments of chromosome 8 and chromosome 14.
12. Which of the following chromosomal alteration causes retinoblastoma?
a) Deletion in chromosome 11
b) Translocation between chromosome 9 and 22
c) Deletion in chromosome 13
d) Translocation between chromosome 8 and 21
Explanation: Retinoblastoma is an eye cancer which is caused by the deletion in chromosome number 13. Wilms tumor caused due to deletion in chromosome 11 and leukemia is caused by the translocation between the segments of chromosomes.
13. Name the genes which directly inhibit cell growth or promote cell death.
a) Gatekeeper genes
b) Caretaker genes
d) Transcription factors
Explanation: Gatekeeper genes are tumor suppressor genes which inhibit cell growth and promote cell death. They act directly on cell and their activity restrict tumor cell proliferation.
14. If DNA is damaged, which of the following gene arrest cell cycle?
c) Hedgehog receptor
Explanation: p53 is a tumor suppressor gene which acts as a transcription factor and arrests the cell cycle if DNA is damaged. These genes also encode checkpoint control proteins and maintain genomic stability during mitotic proliferation.
15. Name the chemical carcinogen which causes prostate cancer.
Explanation: Cancer can be caused by the number of chemical carcinogens like cadmium causes prostate cancer, radon causes lung cancer, arsenic is responsible for lung and skin cancer, and asbestos causes cancer of gastrointestinal tract.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Life Sciences.
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