This set of Irrigation Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Indian Rivers and Their Classification”.
1. In to how groups rivers in India are divided?
Explanation: Rivers in India are broadly classified into two types, namely Himalayan Rivers and Non-Himalayan Rivers. This classification is based on the basis of the origin of the rivers.
2. Which type of rivers can derive water from all seasons?
a) Tidal Rivers
b) Non-Himalayan Rivers
c) Himalayan Rivers
d) Deltaic Rivers
Explanation: These types of rivers can derive water from rains in monsoon and winter seasons, but in summer they can derive water from the melting snow or ice from the mountains as these rivers take off from the Himalayas.
3. Himalayan rivers carry huge amounts of sediment.
Explanation: The Himalayan Rivers carry huge amounts of sediment because they flow through Himalayan rocks which are soft and friable. The reason is that the zone in which these rivers flow is very much prone to earthquake disturbances causing landslides and increased rock sediment.
4. What is the example of Himalayan Rivers?
Explanation: Ganga is the Himalayan River because it has its origin in Himalayan mountain glacier called Ganges, it flows through the alluvial plains in Northern India, and it is a perennial river.
5. The North Indian rivers rise in high floods.
Explanation: In months of August and July the rainfall is more than 3/4 of the average rainfall. So, due to this reason the North Indian Rivers rise in high floods.
6. What is the source of water for the Non-Himalayan Rivers?
a) Summer Season
b) Rainy Season
c) Winter Season
d) Himalayan Rivers
Explanation: The Non-Himalayan Rivers are not perennial rivers. They receive most part of the water from the rainy seasons. And for the rest of the year they receive water from the groundwater as base flow.
7. In which parts of India do non perennial rivers flow?
a) North India
b) Central and South India
c) Eastern India
d) West India
Explanation: These rivers flow in Central and Southern India, as these regions are full of plateaus, valleys which is not the case in Northern India where the land terrain is of plains. Here the rivers do not have a constant water source as in case of perennial rivers, which have Himalayan mountain ranges ice as their source.
8. Which river is the example of Non-Himalayan Rivers?
Explanation: Godavari is the best example of non-perennial rivers. It originates from Maharashtra (Central India) and merges into the Bay of Bengal in Andhra Pradesh (South India).
9. Which type of rivers is more stable?
a) Himalayan Rivers
b) Non-Himalayan Rivers
c) Virgin Rivers
d) Flashy Rivers
Explanation: The Non-Himalayan Rivers are more stable compared to Himalayan Rivers as they flow through non-alluvial rivers. They also pose no risk of a rise in high floods during rainy seasons because these rivers draw their waters from these seasons itself.
10. The flood discharge in Himalayan Rivers can be great as how times the normal winter flow?
a) 25 to 75
b) 25 to 50
c) 75 to 100
d) 50 to 100
Explanation: Since the Himalayan Rivers are perennial rivers, there is a risk of a rise in high floods during rainy seasons. This leads to flood discharge as great as 50 to 100 times the normal winter flow. The surface runoffs are also unpredictable.
11. According to what variations the Himalayan Rivers are very complex?
b) Discharge and Sediment Load
c) Type of Bed Soil
d) Terrain of the River Basin
Explanation: As there is a risk of high floods in these rivers, the flood discharge and surface runoffs are unpredictable and this makes it tough to control them. Moreover, the sections which are required for the passing of these flood discharges are vastly out of proportion to the sections required for normal winter flows. So, therefore these variations in discharge and sediment load make the hydraulics of these rivers very complicated and cause them to meander.
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