Human Anatomy Questions and Answers – Osteology – Bone & Vertebral Column

This set of Human Anatomy Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Osteology – Bone & Vertebral Column”.

1. How many bones does an adult human skeleton have?
a) 206
b) 209
c) 207
d) 205
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In the skeleton of the adult there are 206 distinct bones and the bifurcation is given below:-
Vertebral column – 26
Skull – 22
Hyoid bone – 1
Ribs and sternum – 25
Upper extremities – 64
Lower extremities – 62
Auditory ossicles – 6.

2. Name the four classes of bones?
a) Long, short, regular, irregular
b) Big, small, flat, bulged
c) Long, Short, Flat, and Irregular
d) Big, small, regular, irregular
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Bones are divisible into four classes: Long, Short, Flat, and Irregular. The long bones are found in the limbs, and each consists of a body or shaft and two extremities. Some of the irregular bones are vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx, temporal, sphenoid, maxilla, palatine, inferior nasal concha, mandible and hyoid. Flat bones are composed of two thin layers of compact tissue enclosing between them variable quantity of cancellous tissue. Where a part of the skeleton is intended for strength and compactness combined with limited movement, it is constructed of a number of short bones, as in the carpus and tarsus.

3. Name the two kinds of tissues present in the bone?
a) Cancellous tissue and non-compact tissue
b) Compact tissue and non compact tissue
c) Compact tissue and cancellous tissue
d) Non compact tissue and cancellous tissue
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: On examining a section of any bone, it is seen to be composed of two kinds of tissue, one of which is dense in texture, like ivory, and is termed compact tissue; the other consists of slender fibers and lamellæ, which join to form a reticular structure; this, from its resemblance to lattice-work, is called cancellous tissue. The compact tissue is placed on the exterior of the bone and cancellous in the interior.

4. Which of the following connective tissue envelopes the bone?
a) Periosteum
b) Pericardium
c) Myocardium
d) Marrow
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The periosteum is a membrane that covers the outer surface of all bones but not to cartilaginous extremities. When strong tendons or ligaments are attached to a bone, the periosteum is incorporated with them.

5. Spongy bones do not have a haversian system.
a) False
b) True
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Compact bone tissue forms the outer layer of all bones while spongy or cancellous bone forms the inner layer of all bones. Spongy bone tissue does not contain osteons. it consists of trabeculae.
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6. Which cell secretes the matrix for bone formation?
a) Osteoclastoma
b) Osteoclast
c) Mesoblasts
d) Osteoblasts
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Osteoblasts are cell which secrete the substance of bone. They are single nucleus cells. It helps in synthesis of bone.

7. Which of the following are two types of bone marrow?
a) Red marrow and yellow marrow
b) Red marrow and white marrow
c) Yellow marrow and white marrow
d) White marrow and blue marrow
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The two types of bone marrows are red marrow and yellow marrow. Red marrow consists of hematopoietic tissue. The yellow marrow is made up of fat cells.

8. The vertebrae in the upper three regions of the column remain distinct throughout life and are known as true or movable vertebrae.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The vertebrae in the upper three regions of the column remain distinct throughout life. They are known as true or movable vertebrae. Those of the sacral and coccygeal regions, on the other hand, are termed false or fixed vertebrae, because they are united with one another in the adult to form two bones—five forming the upper bone or sacrum and four the terminal bone or coccyx.

9. Which of the following is the largest segment of the movable part of the vertebral column?
a) Coccygeal
b) Cervical
c) Lumbar vertebrae
d) Thoracic
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The lumbar vertebrae are the largest segments of the movable part of the vertebral column. They can be distinguished by the absence of a foramen in the transverse process and by the absence of facets on the sides of the body.

10. Choose the correct vertebral formula of vertebral column of human being.
a) C7 Th13 L4 S5 Co4
b) C7 Th12 L5 S5 Co4
c) C7 Th13 L5 S5 Co4
d) C7 Th12 L5 S5 Co4
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The vertebrae are thirty-three in number and are grouped under the names cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. According to the regions they occupy there are seven in the cervical region, twelve in the thoracic, five in the lumbar, five in the sacral and four in the coccygeal.

11. Which vertebra has odontoid process?
a) Atlas
b) Axis
c) Cervical
d) Coccyx
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The odontoid process is known as the dens. It is an upward projectile of bone that arises from the front part of the center of the axis vertebra.

12. Which of the following is the vestigial bony part of the human skeleton?
a) Cervical
b) Cranium
c) Clavicle
d) Coccyx
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Vestigial structures are body parts that seemingly have no purpose or function. The coccyx is commonly called as tailbone and is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans.

13. The joint between atlas and axis is _____________
a) Ball and socket joint
b) Saddle joint
c) Pivot joint
d) Angular joint
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The atlantoaxial joint is a joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae the atlas and axis. It is a pivot joint.

14. The major function of intervertebral discs is to __________
a) Absorb shock
b) String the vertebrae together
c) Prevent injuries
d) Prevent hypertension
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The intervertebral discs are fibro cartilaginous cushions. They serve as the spine’s shock absorbing system, which protects the vertebrae, brain and other structures.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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