This set of Gene Manipulation Questions and Answers for Aptitude test focuses on “Gene Manipulation in Mice”.
1. Transgenic plants can be __________ from transformed plant cells.
Explanation: Whereas transgenic plants can be regenerated from transformed plant cells, the same can not be achieved directly in animals.
2. Differentiated animal cells cannot ____________
a) Grow further
b) Live longer
c) Be cloned
Explanation: Animal cells become progressively restricted in their potency as development proceeds. This means that differentiated animal cells are normally unable to dedifferentiate.
3. In most animals, the somatic and germ cells are not differentiated.
Explanation: In most animals, the somatic and germ cells separate at an early developmental stage. Therefore there are not many ways of DNA introduction into animal cells.
4. For germline transformation of animal cells, DNA is introduced into ___________ cells.
Explanation: The only way to achieve germline transformation directly in animals is to introduce DNA into totipotent cells prior to developmental stage.
5. Embryonic stem cells in mice are __________ cells.
Explanation: Cultured embryonic stem cells which are derived from the preimplantation embryo can contribute to all the tissues of the developing animal.
6. ES cells are amenable to homologous recombination and hence can be used for ____________
a) Recombinant protein production
b) Gene targeting
Explanation: ES cells can be used for gene targeting, the accurate replacement of a segment of the endogenous genome with a homologous segment of exogenous DNA.
7. In gene targeting, endogenous gene is replaced by a ____________
a) Exogenous gene
d) Null allele
Explanation: Gene targeting can be used to replace endogenous genes with a completely non-functional copy which is a null allele, allowing the function of the endogenous gene to be tested.
8. The nuclei of animal cells contain all the information necessary to _________ the whole of development.
Explanation: Although differentiated animal cells are developmentally restricted, their nuclei still contain all the genetic information required to recapitulate the whole of development.
9. Dolly, the first transgenic animal was a ________
Explanation: Dolly was the first sheep produced following a nuclear transfer from a differentiated adult somatic cell to an enucleated egg.
10. It is possible to introduce DNA into the germline of mice.
Explanation: The ability to introduce DNA into the germline of mice is one of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century and has paved way for the transformation of other mammals.
11. All the methods of _________ transformation require removal of fertilized eggs as the primary step.
Explanation: All the methods of germline transformation require the removal of fertilized eggs or early embryos from donor mothers, brief culture in vitro.
12. Which of the following has its own independent genome?
b) Golgi body
Explanation: All the methods developed for germline transformation have been developed with nuclear transgenesis in mind. Mitochondria, however, have its own independent genome.
13. Pronuclear microinjection directly transfers DNA into _____________
a) Female pronucleus
c) Male pronucleus
Explanation: Pronuclear microinjection involves the direct transfer of DNA into the male pronucleus of the fertilized mouse egg. It is a technique of DNA introduction.
14. Which exogenous DNA was introduced into the first transgenic mice created?
Explanation: Direct microinjection was the first strategy used to generate transgenic mice. Simian Virus 40 DNA was injected into the blastocoele cavity of preimplantation embryos.
15. Just after ________ female and male pronucleus are discrete.
Explanation: Just after fertilization, the small egg nucleus (female pronucleus) and the large sperm nucleus (male pronucleus) are discrete.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.
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