This set of Gene Manipulation Interview Questions and Answers focuses on “Role of Bioinformatics in Gene Manipulation”.
1. When was the first database of protein sequences established?
Explanation: In 1960s, Margaret Dayhoff established the first database of protein sequences, a database that was published annually as a series of volumes entitled Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure.
2. Which of the following was the first protein to be sequenced?
Explanation: Bioinformatics was born when the first complete protein sequence was determined. This was bovine insulin sequenced between 1951 and 1955.
3. When was ‘Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure’ published?
Explanation: By 1965, when the ‘Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure’ was first published, there were more than 100 sequences in the scientific literature.
4. “Globins” is a family of ____________
Explanation: Most of the sequences contained in ‘Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure’ were redundant and were used to investigate sequence diversity between homologous proteins in large families such as the globins.
5. When was the first nucleotide sequence determined?
Explanation: The first nucleotide sequence to be determined was that of a yeast transfer-RNA by Madison in the year 1966. Most nucleotide sequences prior to about 1975 were from RNA molecules.
6. When was the first nucleotide sequence database developed?
Explanation: In 1982 there were enough DNA sequences to justify the establishment of the first nucleotide sequence database, GenBank.
7. By the end of 1982, what was the approximate number of sequences in GenBank?
Explanation: By the end of 1982, GenBank contained a grand total of 606 sequences. The database grew steadily until about 1994 when the genomics era really kicked in.
8. In 1994, the approximate number of sequences in GenBank rose to ____________
Explanation: In 1994 the number of sequences in GenBank was just over 200,000. Two decades later, the figure stands at 30 million and shows no sign of slowing down.
9. Primary sequence databases are repositories for _______________
a) Nucleotide sequence
b) Protein sequence
c) Genome sizes
d) Host range
Explanation: The primary sequence databases are repositories for annotated nucleotide sequence data. These are the most important databases in molecular biology.
10. DDBJ is a _________________
b) Protein bank
c) Nucleotide sequence database
d) Secondary database
Explanation: DDBJ is the abbreviation of the DNA Databank of Japan, and is a primary database. New sequence data can be deposited with this databank.
11. The primary sequence databases are repositories for _______ sequence data.
Explanation: The primary sequence databases are repositories for raw sequence data derived directly from experiments and sequencing projects.
12. The dbEST is a subsidiary of ___________
Explanation: GenBank has a subsidiary called the dbEST, which is a database of ESTs. It has been instrumental in generating gene maps by in-silico analysis.
13. SWISS-PROT is a repository for ____________
a) Nucleotide sequences
b) Protein sequences
d) Genome arrays
Explanation: The SWISS-PROT is not just a repository for protein sequences. Rather, it is a collection of confirmed protein sequences annotated with related information.
14. Curated data in a database means _________ data.
a) Actively managed
Explanation: The quality of data in a database like SWISS-PROT is very high because it is actively managed, that is the data is curated, making all the necessary information accessible.
15. TrEMBL consists of entries in the same format as SWISS-PROT.
Explanation: The less robust TrEMBL database consists of entries in the same format as those in SWISS-PROT, derived from the translation of all coding sequences in EMBL.
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