This set of Fluid Mechanics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Relation between Water Surface Slopes and Channel Bottom Slopes”.

1. A slope based on the culvert bottom is called______

a) Hydraulic slope

b) Hydraulic curve

c) Adverse slope

d) Horizontal slope

View Answer

Explanation: Hydraulic slope is defined as a slope of a culvert at a specific flow. It is classified into the hydraulic regime. It defines the type of solution generated from the gradual variation in the flow calculations.

2. A slope based on a relationship between water depth and critical depth is called_______

a) Hydraulic slope

b) Hydraulic curve

c) Adverse slope

d) Horizontal slope

View Answer

Explanation: Hydraulic curve is defined as curve that is based on the relationship of the water depth relative to the critical depth and its normal depth. Thus, the correct choice is hydraulic curve.

3. The compressible flow is assumed to be _____________

a) Isentropic

b) Adiabatic

c) Polytropic

d) Isentropic and adiabatic

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Explanation: Compressible flow is a branch of fluid mechanics that deals with different types of flow. Its main significance lies in the change in fluid density. It deals with gas dynamics. Flow is assumed to be isentropic.

4. What is the culvert bottom slope denoted as?

a) sl

b) SL

c) So

d) sL

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Explanation: Culvert bottom slope is denoted as ‘So’. The culvert bottom slope plays an important role in determining the hydraulic slope and hydraulic curve of a fluid flow in motion. It is found using appropriate inlet and outlet conditions.

5. What is the critical depth denoted as?

a) Yo

b) Y_{c}

c) Yb

d) d

View Answer

Explanation: Critical depth is denoted as Y

_{c}. The critical depth plays an important role in determining the hydraulic slope and hydraulic curve of a fluid flow in motion. It is found using appropriate inlet and outlet conditions.

6. What is the normal depth denoted as?

a) Yo

b) Y_{c}

c) Yb

d) Y_{n}

View Answer

Explanation: Normal depth is denoted as Y

_{n}. The normal depth plays an important role in determining the hydraulic slope and hydraulic curve of a fluid flow in motion. It is found using appropriate inlet and outlet conditions.

7. When So is less than zero, it is called________

a) Adverse

b) Horizontal

c) Critical

d) Mild

View Answer

Explanation: When S

_{o}is less than zero, it is called Adverse slopes. The flow conditions for an adverse slope is similar to that of the horizontal case in that non-existence state. Adverse slope is always negative.

8. When S_{o} is equal to zero, it is called________

a) Adverse

b) Horizontal

c) Critical

d) Mild

View Answer

Explanation: When S

_{o}is equal to zero, it is called Horizontal slope. It is denoted as H. The bed slope follows the manning’s equation to solve for its normal depth. It is always equal to zero.

9. When Y_{o} = Y_{c}, it is called ________

a) Adverse

b) Horizontal

c) Critical

d) Mild

View Answer

Explanation: When Yo= Yc, it is called a Critical slope. Critical slopes are denoted by the letter ‘c’. Critical slopes like the other slopes have three depth zones that help to determine the water surface flow.

10) When Y_{n} > Y_{c} and S_{o} > 0, it is called a _____

a) Adverse

b) Horizontal

c) Critical

d) Mild

View Answer

Explanation: When Y

_{n}> Y

_{c}and S

_{o}> 0, it is called a mild slope. Mild slope is denoted by ‘M’. This is a bed slope that has 3 zones with a different set of conditions. This slope occurs most commonly in the back water curve.

11. When S_{o} > 0 and Y_{n} < Y_{c}, it is called as_______

a) Adverse

b) Horizontal

c) Critical

d) Steep

View Answer

Explanation: When the slopes have a condition of S

_{o}> 0 and Y

_{n}< Y

_{c}, it is called as steep slope. It is denoted as ‘S’. Steep slope is classified into three zones. These zone are differentiated depending on their conditions and properties.

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