Environmental Biotechnology Questions and Answers – Microbial Transformations of Pesticides – Aromatic Hydroxylation

This set of Environmental Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Microbial Transformations of Pesticides – Aromatic Hydroxylation”.

1. Which of the following is not a process of Aromatic Hydroxylation?
a) Vitrification
b) Thermal
c) Bio-leaching
d) Chemical
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In thermal process, contaminants removed by heat treatment, Vitrification is the use of high temperature that leads to fusion of contaminants, bio-leaching is a process used for extraction of metals and does not remove contaminants, Chemical method requires comparatively higher temperature and pressure to remove contaminants.

2. Soil remediation is a process that involves Aromatic Hydroxylation by means of which processes?
a) Bacterial contaminants
b) Residual effects of human activities
c) Biological contaminants
d) Non-Biological contaminants
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Soil remediation is a process of removing residual effects of anthropogenic activities but bacterial contaminants don’t affect the land quality, hence, biological and non-biological contaminates do not affect the environment whereas it helps in fastening the process of bio-degradation.

3. What physical methods of treatment are involved in aromatic Hydroxylation?
a) Microorganisms
b) Concentration and excavation
c) Toxic compounds
d) Ethidium bromide
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Concentration and excavation is a physical method of treatment of contaminants, use of microorganisms is a biological method of treatment which is based on the activity of biological compounds, Ethidium bromide is carcinogenic, toxic compounds are not cost effective and also, harmful to the environment.

4. Which of the following is the most reliable method of remediation?
a) Bio-magnification
b) Bio-remediation
c) Lyophilization
d) Chemical method
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Bio-remediation is the most efficient method as it uses biological organisms which is also environment friendly, Chemical method requires comparatively higher temperature and pressure, lyophilization is a process of freeze drying, Bio-magnification is the process by which toxic substances get deposited in the food chain.

5. Which of the following decreases the risk of secondary contamination in the physical method of soil remediation?
a) Concentration
b) Reduced cost
c) Quorum quenching
d) Lyophilization
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Concentration of contaminants reduces the further risk of contamination as it involves addition of no reagents, lower energy demands lead to reduction in cost level but doesn’t reduce chances of secondary contamination, quorum quenching leads to inhibition of quorum sensing and lyophilization is a process of freeze drying.
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6. What is the global significance of methane gas?
a) Highest calorific value
b) Lowest calorific value
c) Eutrophication
d) BOD
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The calorific value of methane gas is 55mJ/Kg which can be used as a fuel and natural gas has the lowest calorific value, eutrophication leads to algal blooms which deteriorates the health of aquatic life, BOD determines the amount of oxygen which is consumed by the organic matter present in water. Eutrophication is harmful to aquatic life.

7. Which technique is used to remove contaminants from a stream of water using aromatic Hydroxylation?
a) End-of-pipe
b) MPN
c) Dissolved Oxygen method
d) Chemical oxygen method
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: End-of-pipe is a process which uses free water and air streams of various contaminates at the last stage of the process, most probable number method is used to detect the presence of E. coli which is a fecal coliform bacterium, the chemical testing method detects the presence of ammonia, nitrate, pH or any chemical parameter, dissolved oxygen method measures the level of dissolved oxygen.

8. What type of pollutants released by vehicles leads to air pollution?
a) Hydrogen
b) Nitrogen
c) Carbon monoxide
d) Methane
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Pollutants like Carbon monoxide released in the air due to incomplete combustion of fuel from vehicles leads to pollution, Nitrogen and hydrogen are naturally present in the air and methane is released by activity of methanogens.

9. Dead zones in water is caused due to which of the following issues?
a) Harmful algal blooms
b) Bio-remediation
c) Bio-degradation
d) Bio-magnification
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Algal blooms produce toxins which leads to formation of dead zones in water, Bio-magnification is the process by which toxic substances get deposited in the food chain, bio-degradation is the process that leads to degradation of compounds with the help of bacteria, Bio remediation is a process that uses microbial processes and converts toxic substances into less toxic or usable forms.

10. Which of the following disease is caused in humans due to air pollution?
a) Malaria
b) Chronic obstructive pulmonary
c) Rheumatoid arthritis
d) Multiple sclerosis
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Malaria is caused due to bite of the female Anopheles mosquito, Rheumatoid arthritis and Multiple sclerosis are autoimmune diseases and Chronic obstructive pulmonary is a lung related disease caused due to inhalation of polluted air.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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