# Data Integrity Algorithms Questions and Answers – Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) – III

This set of Cryptography Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) – 3”.

1. In SHA-3, which step function does the operation L[2,3] <- L[2,3] XOR NOT(L[3,3]) AND L[4,3] represent?
a) Theta
b) Rho
c) Pi
d) Chi

Explanation: The above operation represents the chi step function.

2. In SHA-3, which function does the operation L[2,3]<- C XOR L[2,3] XOR ROT(C,1) represent?
a) Theta
b) Rho
c) Pi
d) Chi

Explanation: The above operation represents the theta step function.

3. How many rounds are present in each iteration function of SHA-3?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6

Explanation:Each Iteration of the SHA-3 algorithm has 5 step functions.

4. In SHA-3, which step function does not affect W [0, 0]?
a) Theta
b) Iota
c) Pi
d) Chi

Explanation: Pi and Rho step functions do not cause any change on W [0, 0].

5. Which among the following is not a substitution operation?
a) Theta
b) Iota
c) Pi
d) Chi

Explanation: Pi and Rho are permutation operations.
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6. In SHA-3, for a message digest size of 256, what is the bitrate ‘r’ (capacity = 512) ?
a) 576
b) 1088
c) 1152
d) 832

Explanation: In SHA-3, c+r = 1600, therefore here ‘r’ = 1088.

7. The sponge construction involves 2 phases, these are
c) absorbing and squeezing
d) none of the mentioned

Explanation: The sponge construction involves 2 phases – the absorbing phase and the squeezing phase.

8. Within the Keccak function-f, the 1600 bits are arranged into a 5 x 5 x 64 array a. The 64-bit units are referred to as
a) lemma
b) z co-ordinate
c) kernel
d) lanes

Explanation: They are referred to as lanes.

9. What are the co-ordinates of the bottom-right most lane?
a) L[4 ,4].
b) L[4, 0].
c) L[5, 5].
d) L[5, 1].

Explanation: The bottom right most lane corresponds to x=4 and y=0 i.e. L[4, 0].

10. How many iterations / rounds does the Keccak function have ?
a) 12
b) 36
c) 16
d) 24

Explanation: The Keccak function has 24 rounds, each of which has 5 step functions.

11. Which step function works only W[0, 0]?
a) Theta
b) Iota
c) Pi
d) Chi

Explanation: The last step function Iota works only on W[0, 0].

12. SHA-3 has an advantage over other algorithms because, there is no need for table look ups, arithmetic operations or data dependent operations.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The statement is true. SHA-3 does not require look-up tables, and is thus easily implemented on both hardware and software.

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