This set of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “P-Block Elements – Nitric Acid”.
1. Which of the following is not an oxo-acid of nitrogen?
a) Hyponitric acid
b) Hyponitrous acid
c) Nitrous acid
d) Nitric acid
Explanation: Hyponitric acid does not exist. The rest three mentioned are commonly occurring oxoacids of nitrogen. Hyponitrous acid, H2N2O2 is an isomer tautomer of nitramide, with the structure of the former being HON = NOH. Nitrous acid, HNO2 is usually formed in the atmosphere prior conversion to nitric acid. It is highly unstable.
2. Which of the following is true regarding nitric acid?
a) It is a strong reducing agent
b) It is a weak oxidizing agent
c) Its basicity is unity
d) It is non-planar in gaseous state
Explanation: Nitric acid is a very weak reducing agent since it has a polar O – H bond. This breaks to donate the H+ ion which is why it is a strong oxidizing agent and a strong acid. Since there is only one cleavable O – H bond, the basicity of nitric acid is unity (one HNO3 molecule can donate only 1 H+ ion). It exists as a planar molecule in vapor phase.
3. Which of the following reactions best represents lab scale preparation of nitric acid?
a) 3HNO2 → HNO3 + H2O + 2NO
b) NO2 + O2 → NO3
c) NaNO3 + H2SO4 → NaHSO4 + HNO3
d) 3NO2 + H2O → 2HNO3 + NO
Explanation: The most appropriate lab scale preparation method of nitric acid, HNO3 is using an alkali nitrate salt and react it with concentration nitric acid in a glass retort. Nitrous acid being highly unstable decomposes into nitric acid. The other two sets of reaction represent the industrial process of manufacturing nitric acid i.e. Ostwald’s process.
4. What is the name of the industrial process to manufacture nitric acid?
a) Contact process
b) Haber-Bosch process
c) Solvay process
d) Ostwald’s process
Explanation: Ostwald’s process is the name of the industrial process to manufacture nitric acid in bulk. It involves the oxidation of ammonia which forms nitric oxide. This is then reacted with more oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide. Subsequently, nitrogen dioxide is dissolved in water to produce adequate concentrations of nitric acid. Contact process is used to produce sulfuric acid. Solvay is used to obtain sodium carbonate and Haber-Bosch to obtain ammonia.
5. What is the catalyst used in the industrial manufacture of nitric acid?
a) Powdered iron (III) oxide
b) Vanadium (V) oxide
c) Zinc-mercury amalgam
d) Platinum-Rhodium gauze sheet
Explanation: Pt-Rh gauze sheet is widely used as the catalyst in ammonic oxidation, the first step of Ostwald’s process. Fe2O3 is used in Haber’s process; V2O5 in contact process and Zn (Hg) is used in Clemmensen reduction of aldehydes.
6. What is the nitric acid – water composition by mass, respectively, for the components to form an azeotrope?
a) 70% – 30%
b) 68% – 32%
c) 30% – 70%
d) 32% – 68%
Explanation: Experimentally, it is determined that nitric acid and water form a constant boiling azeotrope at 68% – 32% by mass composition, respectively. Here, it becomes impossible to separate water and nitric acid by distillation methods. Thus, concentrated sulfuric acid is used for dehydration and removal of water.
7. Which of these gases is released upon treating zinc with diluted and then concentrated nitric acid?
a) Nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide
b) Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide
c) Nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide
d) Nitrous oxide and nitric oxide
Explanation: The products released depend on the concentration of nitric acid. In case of zinc metal, diluted nitric acid treatment release nitrous oxide and concentrated nitric acid causes the release of nitrogen dioxide.
8. What product(s) is/are formed when aluminum metal is treated with concentrated nitric acid?
a) Al (NO3) 3
b) Al (NO2) 3 + H2
Explanation: Aluminum does not dissolve in nitric acid. This is because treatment with nitric acid results in the formation of a tough oxide layer. This oxide layer prevents it from further reacting with the oxide. Hence, the compound formed is Al2O3 i.e. aluminum (III) oxide.
9. Which reagent is predominantly used in pickling of stainless steel?
a) Iodic acid
b) Nitric acid
c) Phosphoric acid
d) Sulfuric acid
Explanation: Pickling of stainless steel is the process of removal of a thin layer of the alloyed metal from the surface. The common reagent used is nitric acid along with calculated amounts of hydrofluoric acid.
10. How many moles of nitric acid is required to convert 1 mole of sulfur to sulfuric acid?
Explanation: 1 mole of sulfur, S8 requires 48 moles of concentrated nitric acid. The reaction is given by S8 + 48HNO3 → 8H2SO4 + 48NO2 + 16H2O. 10, 4 and 20 moles of concentrated nitric acid is required to produce iodic acid, carbon dioxide and phosphoric acid from 1 mole of iodine, carbon and phosphorus, respectively.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Chemistry – Class 12.
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