This set of Chemistry Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biomolecules – Hormones”.
1. Which of the following hormone is a polypeptide?
Explanation: Insulin consists of a chain of 51 amino acids and hence is a polypeptide. Estrogen and androgen are steroids, whereas epinephrine is an amine.
2. Hormones are ______
Explanation: Hormones are chemical substances produced by the endocrine glands in the human body. They are carried to different parts of the body through the blood stream. Because of the action of hormones as intercellular communicators, they are called chemical messengers.
3. Which of the following is not an amine hormone?
Explanation: Amine hormones are water-soluble compounds which have amino groups and are structurally derived from amino acids. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone.
4. Identify the hormone that increases the glucose level in blood.
Explanation: Insulin is released in response to the rapid rise in blood glucose level. On the other hand, the hormone glucagon tends to increase the glucose level in blood. These two hormones together regulate the blood glucose level.
5. Which of the following is known as fight or flight hormone?
Explanation: Epinephrine and norepinephrine are amine hormones that mediate response to external stimuli. Adrenaline plays an important role in fight or flight situations by increasing blood flow to muscles, blood sugar level and pulse rate.
6. Which hormone plays an important role during child birth and post it?
Explanation: Oxytocin controls the contraction of the uterus during child birth and helps in the release of milk from mammary glands. Progesterone is responsible for the preparation of uterus for implantation of fertilised egg.
7. The condition goitre is associated with which hormone?
Explanation: Thyroxine is an iodinated derivative of tyrosine. Abnormally low levels of thyroxine leads to hypothyroidism, which causes enlargement of thyroid gland (goitre). Increases level of thyroxine causes hyperthyroidism.
8. Lack of which component in diet causes hypothyroidism?
b) Vitamin C
Explanation: Low levels of iodine in the diet may lead to hypothyroidism and enlargement of the thyroid gland. This can be controlled by adding sodium iodide to table salt to form iodised salt.
9. Which of the following does not release steroid hormones?
c) Adrenal cortex
Explanation: Steroid hormones are produced by adrenal cortex and gonads. Hormones released by the adrenal cortex play a very important role in the functions of the bod.
10. Which hormone controls the balance of water and minerals in the body?
Explanation: Mineralocorticoids are steroid hormones which control the level of excretion of water and salt by the kidney, thus balancing the water and mineral levels as required.
11. Lack of which hormone causes Addison’s disease?
Explanation: If adrenal cortex does not function properly then one of the results may be Addison’s disease characterized by hypoglycaemia, weakness and increased susceptibility to stress. This may be fatal unless treated by glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.
12. All hormones are proteins.
Explanation: Hormones are compounds having varied chemical structures. They may be polypeptide chains or amino acids or contain a steroid nucleus.
13. Estradiol is the main sex hormone in females.
Explanation: Estradiol is a steroid hormone which is majorly responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in females and participates in the control of menstrual cycle.
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