Chemical Process Technology Questions and Answers – Natural Products – Soaps

This set of Chemical Process Technology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Natural Products – Soaps”.

1. What is the purpose of adding cleansing agent?
a) Increase wet ability and decrease surface tension
b) Decrease wet ability and increase surface tension
c) Decrease wet ability
d) Increase surface tension
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Cleansing agent provides hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups which are responsible for increase in wetting ability and decreasing the surface tension.

2. Which of the following represents saponification process reaction? M represents an alkali metal.
b) M-COOH +R-OH → R-COOM + H2O
c) R-COOH+ M-OH → R-COOM + H2O
d) M-COOH + R-OH → M-COOR + H2O
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Saponification is a process used for the production of soap. As soap is formed by conversion of fat into a fatty acid on reacting with alkali, the correct reaction is c. Fatty acid R-COOH reacts with an alkali M-OH to produce soap R-COOM and water H2O.

3. Fat splitting reaction of soap manufacture takes place in ______________
a) blender
b) hydrolysis tower
c) mixer
d) high vacuum still
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Triglycerides and catalyst are added at the bottom of hydrolysis tower, where the fat splitting reaction takes place with counter current passage of high pressure water and removal of 15-20% glycerin solution.

4. Why a Flash tank is used in soap manufacturing unit?
a) To remove impurities
b) To add alkali
c) To add excess steam
d) To remove excess steam
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The fatty acids produced in the hydrolysis tower are sent into a flash tank where the removal of excess steam takes place. Then the crude fatty acids are sent into vacuum still for further operations.

5. Where does saponification takes place in continuous process?
a) Hydrolysis tower
b) Blender
c) Vacuum still
d) Mixer
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Vacuum distilled fatty acids are sent into mixer where caustic soda is added, and then the saponification process takes place in a slow speed blender.

6. What are the operating conditions of hydrolysis tower?
a) 230-250° C and 40-45 atm
b) 200-220° C and 40-45 atm
c) 180-230° C and 20-30 atm
d) 230-250° C and 20-30 atm
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Triglycerides, catalyst are added at bottom of hydrolysis tank with addition of high pressure water at 230-250° C and 40-45 atm.

7. Soaps are sodium salts of alkylated fatty acids.
a) False
b) True
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The statement is false since soaps are sodium/potassium salts of fatty acids. Hence they are formed from fats and alkali.

8. Which of the following indicates continuous process for soaps?
a) Hydrolysis tower, mixer, blender, vacuum still
b) Vacuum still, hydrolysis tower, mixer and blender
c) Hydrolysis tower, blender, mixer, vacuum still
d) Hydrolysis tower, vacuum still, mixer, blender
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Raw materials are sent into hydrolysis tower where fat splitting reaction takes place, and then the crude fatty acids are passed through vacuum still and through mixer where addition of NaOH takes place, finally through blender for saponification to take place.

9. Which one of the following additive converts yellow glycerin into sweet water?
a) Potash
b) Detergent builders
c) Activated charcoal
d) Caustic soda
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Yellow glycerin produced from 15-20% glycerin solution when absorbed with activated charcoal, followed by filtration gives 99% white glycerin also called as sweet water.

10. What is the important byproduct of soap manufacture unit?
a) Fatty acid product
b) Glycerin
c) Glycosides
d) Caustic soda
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Glycerin is the important byproduct of soap manufacture. The removed 15-20% glycerin is sent into triple effect evaporator for the production of yellow glycerin.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Chemical Process Technology.

To practice all areas of Chemical Process Technology, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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