The **transpose of a matrix** is found by interchanging its rows into columns or columns into rows. The transpose of the matrix is denoted by using the letter “**T**” in the superscript of the given matrix.

For **example**, if “A” is the given matrix, then the transpose of the matrix is represented by **A’** or **A ^{T}**.

**Example 1: **

If the given matrix \( A =

\begin{bmatrix}

1 & 2 & 3\\

4 & 5 & 6\\

7 & 8 & 9

\end{bmatrix}\), then the transpose matrix **(A ^{T})** is \(
\begin{bmatrix}

1 & 4 & 7\\

2 & 5 & 8\\

3 & 6 & 9

\end{bmatrix}\)

Since it is a **square matrix**, the order of the matrix does not change when it is transposed.

**Example 2: **

If the order of the original matrix is 2×3, the order of the transposed matrix will be 3×2, as shown below.

If the given matrix \( A =

\begin{bmatrix}

1 & 2 & 3\\

4 & 5 & 6

\end{bmatrix}\), then the transpose matrix **(A ^{T})** is \(
\begin{bmatrix}

1 & 4 \\

2 & 5\\

3 & 6

\end{bmatrix}\)

Write a C Program to find the transpose of a given matrix.

The transpose of a given matrix is calculated by interchanging the rows and columns of a matrix.

There are two ways to find the transpose of a matrix in C.

In this approach, we iterate over the matrix using two loops and store matrix[i][j] in its transpose[j][i]. Basically we are interchanging rows with columns. The Element at index i,j will now be stored at j,i.

**Algorithm:**

1. Start the program.

2. Input the order of matrix.

3. Input the elements of the matrix.

4. Store transpose of matrix in a transpose matrix by iterating over complete matrix.

5. End the Program.

Here is source code of the C program to find the transpose of a given matrix using loops (For Loop). The C program is successfully compiled and run on a Linux system. The program output is also shown below.

/* * C program to accept a matrix of order MxN and find its transpose */ #include <stdio.h> void main() { static int array[10][10],transpose[10][10]; int i, j, m, n; printf("Enter the order of the matrix \n"); scanf("%d %d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the coefficients of the matrix\n"); for (i = 0; i < m; ++i) { for (j = 0; j < n; ++j) { scanf("%d", &array[i][j]); } } printf("The given matrix is \n"); for (i = 0; i < m; ++i) { for (j = 0; j < n; ++j) { printf(" %d", array[i][j]); } printf("\n"); } for (i = 0;i < m;i++) { for (j = 0; j < n; j++) { transpose[j][i] = array[i][j]; } } // printing the transpose of a matrix printf("Transpose of matrix is \n"); for (i = 0; i< n; i++) { for (j = 0; j < m; j++) { printf("%d ", transpose[i][j]); } printf("\n"); } }

1. First input the order of the matrix, then take input of elements of the matrix.

2. In this C program, we are reading the order of the matrix row and column using ‘**m**’ and ‘**n**’ variables respectively.

3. Using for loop the coefficient elements of the matrix is assigned to the variable **array[i][j]**.

4. Then find out the transpose of the matrix by storing the value of **array[i][j]** in **transpose[j][i]** i.e storing values of rows in columns.

5. Then, print the transpose of the matrix.

**Time Complexity: O(m*n)**

In the program, we are iterating over the complete matrix, so time complexity is O(m*n), where m, n are the rows and columns of the matrix.

**Space Complexity: O(m*n)**

Space is required to store the transpose of matrix, which is O(m*n), where m, n are the rows and columns of the matrix.

In this case, we enter the order of the matrix as “3 * 3” and the matrix elements as input to find the transpose of a matrix.

Enter the order of the matrix 3 3 Enter the coefficients of the matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The given matrix is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Transpose of matrix is 1 4 7 2 5 8 3 6 9

In this approach, we use a function to transpose a matrix. In the function, we traverse the whole matrix and store the value at index i,j in the index j,i of the transpose matrix. Afterwards we print the transpose matrix.

**Algorithm to Find Transpose of a Matrix using Loop and Function:**

1. Start the program.

2. Input the order of matrix.

3. Input the elements of the matrix.

4. Declare a function to find transpose of the matrix.

5. Call the function.

6. End the Program.

Here is source code of the C program to find the transpose of a given matrix using loops and function. The C program is successfully compiled and run on a Linux system. The program output is also shown below.

/* * C Program to Find Transpose of a Matrix using Loops and Function */ #include <stdio.h> void transpose_matrix(int m,int n, int array[10][10]) { //transposing array matrix int transpose[10][10]; for (int i = 0;i < m;i++) { for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) { transpose[j][i] = array[i][j]; } } printf("Transpose of matrix is \n"); for (int i = 0; i< n; i++) { for (int j = 0; j < m; j++) { printf("%d ", transpose[i][j]); } printf("\n"); } } void main() { static int array[10][10]; int i, j, m, n; printf("Enter the order of the matrix \n"); scanf("%d %d", &m, &n); printf("Enter the coefficients of the matrix\n"); for (i = 0; i < m; ++i) { for (j = 0; j < n; ++j) { scanf("%d", &array[i][j]); } } printf("The given matrix is \n"); for (i = 0; i < m; ++i) { for (j = 0; j < n; ++j) { printf("%d ", array[i][j]); } printf("\n"); } transpose_matrix(m,n,array); }

1. First input the order of the matrix, then take input of elements of the matrix.

2. Then declare a function to find out the transpose of the matrix by storing the value of **array[i][j]** in **transpose[j][i]** i.e storing values of rows in columns.

3. Then, execute or call the function.

4. Print the transpose of the matrix.

**Time Complexity: O(m*n)**

In the program, we are iterating over the complete matrix, so time complexity is O(m*n), where m, n are the rows and columns of the matrix.

**Space Complexity: O(m*n)**

Space is required to store the transpose of matrix, which is O(m*n), where m, n are the rows and columns of the matrix.

In this case, we enter the order of the matrix as “2 * 3” and the matrix elements as input to find the transpose of a matrix.

Enter the order of the matrix 2 3 Enter the coefficients of the matrix 1 2 3 4 5 6 The given matrix is 1 2 3 4 5 6 Transpose of matrix is 1 4 2 5 3 6

To practice programs on every topic in C, please visit “Programming Examples in C”, “Data Structures in C” and “Algorithms in C”.

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