This set of Bioinformatics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Genome Anatomy – 1”.
1. The chromosomes comprised linear DNA molecules in a tightly compact form that was wrapped around protein complexes, called the nucleosome.
Explanation: Nuclei and chromosomes were not observed in bacteria (a prokaryotic cell), but when bacterial DNA was eventually detected, the molecule was usually circular and was also in a compacted form. The following sections outline the structure and composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes.
2. The first bacterial genome to be sequenced was that of ________ a mild human pathogen.
a) Hemophilus influenzae
c) Vibrio cholarae
d) Clostridium botulinum
Explanation: This project was carried out at the Institute of Genomics Research. It was carried out in part to prove a new genome sequencing method—the shotgun method.
3. While sequencing of the first bacterial genome–A large number of random overlapping fragments were sequenced and then a consensus sequence of the entire ______ chromosome of Hemophilus was assembled by computer.
a) 8.6 x 109 bp
b) 1.8 x 106 bp
c) 6.9 x 105 bp
d) 1.8 x 104 bp
Explanation: It was done excepting several regions that had to be assembled manually. Once available, open reading frames were identified, and these were compared to the existing proteins by a database similarity search.
4. While sequencing of The first bacterial genome—Approximately ____ of the ____ predicted genes matched genes of another species, the bacterial species E. coli K-12 that had been the subject of many years of genetic and biochemical research.
a) 46%, 1500
b) 58%, 1496
c) 72%, 1743
d) 58%, 1743
Explanation: The function of the other 42% of the Hemophilus genes could not be identified, although some of them were similar to the 38% of E. coli genes that were also of unknown function. Other unique sequences that appeared to be associated with the ability of the organism to behave as a human pathogen were also found.
5. After sequencing the Hemophilus genome and Organisms were selected for sequencing based on minimum criteria. Which of the following is not one of them?
a) They had been subjected to a good deal of biological analysis
b) They were model eukaryotic organisms
c) They were an important human pathogen, e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tuberculosis)
d) They were of phylogenetic interest
Explanation: There were model prokaryotic organisms. For e.g., E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. The success of sequencing the Hemophilus genome in a relatively short time and with a modest budget heralded the sequencing of a large number of additional prokaryotic organisms.
6. Analysis of the ribosomal RNA molecules of prokaryotes and eukaryotes had led to the prediction of three main branches in the tree of life.
Explanation: The three branches are represented by Archaea, the Bacteria, and the Eukarya. Analysis of the ribosomal for genome sequencing projects, organisms have been sampled from throughout the tree, including some that are in deeper branches of the tree and that have growth properties reminiscent of an ancient environment.
7. Annotation involves identifying open reading frames in the genome sequence.
Explanation: It is done by using the predicted protein as query sequences in a database similarity search. It further adds significant matches to the genome sequence entry in the sequence database.
8. A simple way to retrieve sequences of viral and other extra-chromosomal genetic elements such as organelles is through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
Explanation: Prior to the sequencing of H. influenzae, the first free-living organism to be sequenced, a large number of viruses had been sequenced. Many of these organisms also serve as model systems for studying replication and gene expression. As an example, the nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage lambda was completed by Sanger.
9. Which of the given is wrongly matched?
a) Escherichia coli – Bacteria
b) Methanococcus jannaschii – Archaea
c) Synechocystis sp. – Archaea
d) Aquifex aeolicus – Bacteria
Explanation: Synechocystis sp. – Bacteria is the correct pair. It is an ancient organism that produces oxygen by light-harvesting.
10. In examining the results of analysis, it is important to look for the method used the statistical significance of the result, and the overall degree of confidence in the alignments.
Explanation: The analysis should be repeated if necessary. Annotation errors occur when the above criteria are not followed.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Bioinformatics.
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