# Basic Civil Engineering Questions and Answers – Railway Engineering

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This set of Basic Civil Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Railway Engineering”.

1. The first passenger train was introduced in India in:
a) 1851
b) 1853
c) 1835
d) 1815

Explanation: The first passenger train in India started in 1853 with around 400 passengers, 3 coaches between Boribundar and Thane.

2. Name the organization which is the research and development wing of Indian Railways.
a) CRIS
b) RDSO
c) RSDO
d) IRCTC

Explanation: The RDSO (Research, Designs and Standards Organization) acts as the technical advisor and consultant to the Ministry of Railways and their production units.

3. The Railways has a _________ degree of freedom for its movement.
a) Single
b) Two
c) Three
d) Four

Explanation: Degree of freedom refers to the number of directions in which a vehicle can move. Since trains have to run on the provided tracks, their movement is restricted to one direction only, compared to road transport which can move in x, y and z directions.

4. Track modulus is defined as:
b) Load/unit length of sleeper to produce depression in rail
c) Load/unit length of rail to produce depression in sleeper
d) Load/unit length of rail to produce unit depression/deflection in track

Explanation: The track modulus defines the stiffness of track or its load bearing capacity. It is based on the elastic theory. When a load causes a deflection on the top of the rail, the deformation comes on the sleeper, below the rail.

5. The track modulus is not affected by gauges.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: As the three gauges (narrow-NG, metre –MG and broad-BG) increases, the components of the permanent part (like ballast and sleeper) also increases in size. As a result track modulus also increases. The recommended track modulus is: BG = 70 to 90kg/cm2, MG=42-54kg/cm2 and NG=30kg/cm2.

6. Which of the following causes stresses in Sleepers?
b) Contact shear stress of wheel and rail
c) Lateral deflection of sleepers
d) Track components

Explanation: The track components like the track modulus, the stiffness of rail, design of the sleeper, sleeper density (number of sleepers provided) and their load bearing capacity are factors which cause stresses in sleepers. The other 3 options are responsible for stresses in rails.

7. There are __________ types of rail sections.
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5

Explanation: The three types of rail sections are Double Headed Rail (Shaped like a dumbbell), Bull Headed Rail (Head thicker/stronger than lower part) and Flat Footed Rail.

8. How does the depth of ballast cushion affect rail section?
a) Higher the depth bigger the rail section
b) Depth is less, bigger the rail section
c) Depth is less, smaller the rail section
d) Depth and Rail section same

Explanation: The selection of the rail section depends on many factors like heaviest axle loads, maximum permissible speed, type of sleepers and depth of ballast cushion. If the depth of the ballast cushion is less, then a bigger rail section has to be provided.

9. The mountain alignment can be classified into _________ types.
a) 4
b) 3
c) 2
d) 1

Explanation: They are the zig-zag development and the switch back development. In the zig-zag developments, the alignments try to follow the contours of the region to an extent. In the switch back, certain contours like steep slopes have to be negotiated and may use buffer stops.

10. What must be done to wooden sleepers before use?
a) Seasoning
b) Washing
c) Painting
d) Hydrating