Basic Civil Engineering Questions and Answers – Port and Harbour Engineering

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This set of Basic Civil Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Port and Harbour Engineering”.

1. Every port is a harbour.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Harbour is an enclosed area where there is storage, refuelling, loading and unloading of cargo facilities. A port is a harbour which provides all facilities for the transfer of cargo as well as passengers. So, all the ports are harbours.

2. How many components does a harbour comprise of?
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

Explanation: The various components of a harbour are entrance channel, break water, turning basin, shelter basin, pier, wharf, quay, dry dock, wet dock and jetty.

3. The entrance channel ranges from:
a) 100-160m
b) 100-500m
c) 0-400m
d) 100-260m

Explanation: The ships enter the harbour from a wide water area, which is called an entrance channel. The width is 100m for a small harbour, 100-160m for medium and 160-260 for large harbour.

4. The solid parallel platform in a harbour with berthing facility on one side only is:
a) Pier
b) Quay
c) Wharf
d) Jetty

Explanation: A pier is the platform parallel to the shore with berthing possible on both sides, a quay provides berthing on one side and retains earth on other side. A jetty is a platform that is perpendicular to shoreline.

5. ____________ is a type of utility based harbour.
a) River harbour
b) Artificial harbour
c) Commercial harbour
d) Canal harbour

Explanation: The commercial harbour provides facilities for loading/unloading of cargo. An artificial harbour is based on the protection needed. (Manmade to protect from storms/waves). River and canal harbours are based on the location of these.

6. The open type of wharves are made of:
a) Timber
b) R.C.C.
c) Timber, R.C.C. or both
d) Earth or rock fill

Explanation: These have high level decks which are supported by piles and are made of timber, R.C.C or both together. Sometimes stressed slab or beam is also used. The solid type wharves are made of earth or rock fill with the bottom made of structures like steel pile cells.

7. The marine structure located alongside or at the entrance of a pier or a wharf is:
b) Dolphins
c) Breakwater
d) Fenders

Explanation: These structures provide mooring facilities for ships, absorb impact force and shorten the length of a pier or a wharf.

8. The ferry designs are dependent on:
a) Aesthetics
b) Length of route
c) Country where it is used
d) Weather conditions

Explanation: The ferry designs depend on factors like passenger capacity, speed, water conditions and length of route; ex- a double ended ferry used in States Island, Washington, which has interchangeable sterns & bows to shuttle the route without turning around.

9. The alignment of breakwater should be:
a) Horizontal
b) Straight
c) Perpendicular
d) Diagonal