Basic Civil Engineering Questions and Answers – Biodiversity and Ecology

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This set of Basic Civil Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Biodiversity and Ecology”.

1. Biodiversity can be broadly classified into how many types?
a) 2
b) 5
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The three types are species diversity (number of the different species found in location), Genetic diversity (genetic variations within a species) and Ecological diversity (variations in the ecosystems of regions).
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2. Biodiversity is of importance as it offers:
a) Stability of ecosystems
b) Stability of atmosphere
c) Stability of species
d) Stability of research
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Biodiversity helps in maintaining ecological stability. The ecosystems have an ability to maintain its original nature even after disturbances occur within it, with the help of biodiversity.

3. The loss in biodiversity is not attributed to:
a) Explosion in the human population
b) Transforming earth’s surface
c) Destruction of natural habitats
d) Use of sustainable products
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The ever-exploding increase in human population leads to the consumption of resources and exploitation of the earth’s surface. This results in the destruction of natural habitats and ecosystems. The use of sustainable alternatives is a step towards conservation.
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4. Biodiversity has an aesthetic value to it.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The natural beauty of the earth has refreshing sights, taste and odours. These add an aesthetic value; wide varieties of colours and fragrance of flowers, taste and colours of fruits, etc.

5. In how many ways does the conservation of biodiversity work?
a) 5
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The conservation methods are broadly classified as in-situ conservation (the species are conserved in their natural ecosystems, which are protected) and ex-situ conservation (breeding of new and endangered plants/animals in controlled conditions).
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6. Which one of the following is not an in-situ conservation method?
a) Zoo
b) National Parks
c) Biosphere Reserves
d) Sanctuaries
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Zoo is a controlled environment where animals are kept. The other 3 options are the natural habitat or areas where the species reside.

7. Which is an advantage of ex-situ conservation?
a) Cheap method
b) Conserve large number of species together
c) Genetic process for breeding/long life
d) Existence in natural habitat
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Endangered plants/animals can be provided the conditions required for larger life with captive breeding and genetic techniques for development of the species which are healthy and more productive.
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8. The area of National Parks range between:
a) 0.61 to 7818 kms
b) 0.04 to 3162 kms
c) 0.14 to 3612 kms
d) 0.16 to 8718 kms
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: National Parks are small reserves maintained by the Government for the protection of wildlife and their habitat. 0.61 to 7818 kms is the range for sanctuaries.

9. The activities of cultivation of land, timber harvesting is permitted in:
a) Sanctuaries
b) National Parks
c) Biosphere Reserves
d) Protected Areas
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Sanctuaries are the areas where only wildlife is present. So, cultivation, harvesting of timber, etc is permitted only if does not interfere with the project. In all the other 3 options, it is prohibited.
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10. Hot spot areas have:
a) Low density of biodiversity
b) Only endangered plants
c) High density of hot springs
d) High density of biodiversity
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: There are areas with a high density of biodiversity, which are presently the most endangered. There are 16 hot spots in the world and 2 in India: North East Himalayas with 3500 endemic species and the Western Ghats with 1600.

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