Artificial Intelligence Questions and Answers – Local Search Problems and Optimization Problems

This set of Artificial Intelligence Questions and Answers for Campus interviews focuses on “Local Search Problems and Optimization Problems”.

1. In many problems the path to goal is irrelevant, this class of problems can be solved using ____________
a) Informed Search Techniques
b) Uninformed Search Techniques
c) Local Search Techniques
d) Informed & Uninformed Search Techniques

Explanation: If the path to the goal does not matter, we might consider a different class of algorithms, ones that do not worry about paths at all. Local search algorithms operate using a single current state (rather than multiple paths) and generally move only to neighbors of that state.

2. Though local search algorithms are not systematic, key advantages would include __________
a) Less memory
b) More time
c) Finds a solution in large infinite space
d) Less memory & Finds a solution in large infinite space

Explanation: Two advantages: (1) they use very little memory-usually a constant amount; and (2) they can often find reasonable solutions in large or infinite (continuous) state spaces for which systematic algorithms are unsuitable.

3. A complete, local search algorithm always finds goal if one exists, an optimal algorithm always finds a global minimum/maximum.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: An algorithm is complete if it finds a solution if exists and optimal if finds optimal goal (minimum or maximum).

4. _______________ Is an algorithm, a loop that continually moves in the direction of increasing value – that is uphill.
a) Up-Hill Search
b) Hill-Climbing
c) Hill algorithm
d) Reverse-Down-Hill search

Explanation: Refer the definition of Hill-Climbing approach.

5. When will Hill-Climbing algorithm terminate?
a) Stopping criterion met
b) Global Min/Max is achieved
c) No neighbor has higher value
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: When no neighbor is having higher value, algorithm terminates fetching local min/max.
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6. What are the main cons of hill-climbing search?
a) Terminates at local optimum & Does not find optimum solution
b) Terminates at global optimum & Does not find optimum solution
c) Does not find optimum solution & Fail to find a solution
d) Fail to find a solution

Explanation: Algorithm terminates at local optimum values, hence fails to find optimum solution.

7. Stochastic hill climbing chooses at random from among the uphill moves; the probability of selection can vary with the steepness of the uphil1 move.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Refer to the definition of variants of hill-climbing search.

8. Hill climbing sometimes called ____________ because it grabs a good neighbor state without thinking ahead about where to go next.
a) Needy local search
b) Heuristic local search
c) Greedy local search
d) Optimal local search

Explanation: None.

9. Hill-Climbing approach stuck for which of the following reasons?
a) Local maxima
b) Ridges
c) Plateaux
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: Local maxima: a local maximum is a peak that is higher than each of its neighboring states, but lower than the global maximum. Ridges: Ridges result in a sequence of local maxima that is very difficult for greedy algorithms to navigate. Plateaux: a plateau is an area of the state space landscape where the evaluation function is flat.

10. ___________ algorithm keeps track of k states rather than just one.
a) Hill-Climbing search
b) Local Beam search
c) Stochastic hill-climbing search
d) Random restart hill-climbing search

Explanation: Refer to the definition of Local Beam Search algorithm.

11. A genetic algorithm (or GA) is a variant of stochastic beam search in which successor states are generated by combining two parent states, rather than by modifying a single state.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Stochastic beam search, analogous to stochastic hill climbing, helps to alleviate this problem. Instead of choosing the best k from the pool of candidate successors, stochastic beam search chooses k successors at random, with the probability of choosing a given successor being an increasing function of its value.

12. What are the two main features of Genetic Algorithm?
a) Fitness function & Crossover techniques
b) Crossover techniques & Random mutation
c) Individuals among the population & Random mutation
d) Random mutation & Fitness function

Explanation: Fitness function helps choosing individuals from the population and Crossover techniques defines the offspring generated.

13. Searching using query on Internet is, use of ___________ type of agent.
a) Offline agent
b) Online agent
c) Both Offline & Online agent
d) Goal Based & Online agent

Explanation: Refer to the definitions of both the type of agent.

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