Artificial Intelligence Questions and Answers – Inference in First-Order Logic

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This set of Artificial Intelligence Assessment Questions and Answers focuses on “Inference in First-Order Logic”.

1. The rule of Universal Instantiation (UI for short) says that we can infer any sentence obtained by substituting a ground term (a term without variables) for the variable.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Rule of universal instantiation.
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2. The corresponding Existential Instantiation rule: for the existential quantifier is slightly more complicated. For any sentence a, variable v, and constant symbol k that does not appear elsewhere in the knowledge base.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Rule of existential instantiation.

3. What among the following could the universal instantiation of ___________
For all x King(x) ^ Greedy(x) => Evil(x)
a) King(John) ^ Greedy(John) => Evil(John)
b) King(y) ^ Greedy(y) => Evil(y)
c) King(Richard) ^ Greedy(Richard) => Evil(Richard)
d) All of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Refer the definition if universal instantiation.
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4. Lifted inference rules require finding substitutions that make different logical expressions looks identical.
a) Existential Instantiation
b) Universal Instantiation
c) Unification
d) Modus Ponen
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: None.

5. Which of the following is not the style of inference?
a) Forward Chaining
b) Backward Chaining
c) Resolution Refutation
d) Modus Ponen
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Modus ponen is a rule for an inference.
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6. In order to utilize generalized Modus Ponens, all sentences in the KB must be in the form of Horn sentences.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: None.

7. For resolution to apply, all sentences must be in conjunctive normal form, a conjunction of disjunctions of literals.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: None.
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8. What are the two basic types of inferences?
a) Reduction to propositional logic, Manipulate rules directly
b) Reduction to propositional logic, Apply modus ponen
c) Apply modus ponen, Manipulate rules directly
d) Convert every rule to Horn Clause, Reduction to propositional logic
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: None.

9. Which among the following could the Existential instantiation of ∃x Crown(x) ^ OnHead(x, Johnny)?
a) Crown(John) ^ OnHead(John, Jonny)
b) Crown(y) ^ OnHead(y, y, x)
c) Crown(x) ^ OnHead(x, Jonny)
d) None of the mentioned
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: None.
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10. Translate the following statement into FOL.
“For every a, if a is a PhD student, then a has a master degree”
a) ∀ a PhD(a) -> Master(a)
b) ∃ a PhD(a) -> Master(a)
c) A is true, B is true
d) A is false, B is false
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: None.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Artificial Intelligence.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter