# Artificial Intelligence Questions and Answers – Inference in First-Order Logic

This set of Artificial Intelligence Assessment Questions and Answers focuses on “Inference in First-Order Logic”.

1. The rule of Universal Instantiation (UI for short) says that we can infer any sentence obtained by substituting a ground term (a term without variables) for the variable.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Rule of universal instantiation.

2. The corresponding Existential Instantiation rule: for the existential quantifier is slightly more complicated. For any sentence a, variable v, and constant symbol k that does not appear elsewhere in the knowledge base.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Rule of existential instantiation.

3. What among the following could the universal instantiation of ___________
For all x King(x) ^ Greedy(x) => Evil(x)
a) King(John) ^ Greedy(John) => Evil(John)
b) King(y) ^ Greedy(y) => Evil(y)
c) King(Richard) ^ Greedy(Richard) => Evil(Richard)
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: Refer the definition if universal instantiation.

4. Lifted inference rules require finding substitutions that make different logical expressions looks identical.
a) Existential Instantiation
b) Universal Instantiation
c) Unification
d) Modus Ponen

Explanation: None.

5. Which of the following is not the style of inference?
a) Forward Chaining
b) Backward Chaining
c) Resolution Refutation
d) Modus Ponen

Explanation: Modus ponen is a rule for an inference.
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6. In order to utilize generalized Modus Ponens, all sentences in the KB must be in the form of Horn sentences.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: None.

7. For resolution to apply, all sentences must be in conjunctive normal form, a conjunction of disjunctions of literals.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: None.

8. What are the two basic types of inferences?
a) Reduction to propositional logic, Manipulate rules directly
b) Reduction to propositional logic, Apply modus ponen
c) Apply modus ponen, Manipulate rules directly
d) Convert every rule to Horn Clause, Reduction to propositional logic

Explanation: None.

9. Which among the following could the Existential instantiation of ∃x Crown(x) ^ OnHead(x, Johnny)?
b) Crown(y) ^ OnHead(y, y, x)
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: None.

10. Translate the following statement into FOL.
“For every a, if a is a PhD student, then a has a master degree”
a) ∀ a PhD(a) -> Master(a)
b) ∃ a PhD(a) -> Master(a)
c) A is true, B is true
d) A is false, B is false

Explanation: None.

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