Arduino Questions and Answers – Finding Out Program Outputs

This set of Arduino Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Finding Out Program Outputs”.

1. What is the output of the program given below if a voltage of 5V is supplied to the pin corresponding to the A0 pin on an Arduino UNO?

```void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
pinMode(A0, INPUT);
}
void loop() {
Serial.println(s);
}```

a) null
b) Error
c) 0
d) 1024

Explanation: The Arduino UNO’s analog pins map the value of the sensed voltage to an internal numbering scale which makes it easier for the programmer to work since it is more difficult to analog voltage levels in programming practice. Thus, for a value of 5V, which reaches the maximum limit, we get a value of 1024.

2. What is the value of “val” in the following program if the pin 12 is given 5V 3 times?

```int val=0;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
PinMode(13,INPUT);
}
void loop() {
if(s==1){
val=val+1;
}
}```

a) null
b) 113
c) 3
d) 2

Explanation: In the program the variable “val” is declared as a global variable, I.e. its value can be accessed by all functions in the current program. This variable is then setup to 1 higher than itself every time the digitalRead() function detects a HIGH or a 5V signal at its end. Hence raising the value every time a 5V signal is applied.
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3. What will the output for the code given below be, if executed on an Arduino UNO?

```void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
Serial.print(sizeof(int));
}```

a) 3
b) 1
c) 2
d) 8

Explanation: The above code uses the sizeof() function to find the capacity of the integer for that particular board. It returns the number of bytes allocated for an int. Normally on 64-bit systems like laptops and desktop computers, this would give a value of 4, however on an Arduino UNO, it will give a value of 2 since the ATMega Board powering the Arduino UNO has a 16-bit architecture.

4. What is the output of the following program?

```void setup() {
String my_str = "This is the sentence";
Serial.begin(9600);
my_str.replace("sentence", "Arduino sketch");
Serial.println(my_str);
}
void loop() { }```

a) “This is the sentence”
b) “This is the ARDUINO SKETCH”
c) “This is the Arduino Sketch”
d) null

Explanation: The code given here, takes a string and then proceeds to replace the value of the string with custom word(s). It is an example of String manipulation in Arduino. It uses the replace() function for achieving this.

5. What will be the nature of the output of the program?

```long rn;
void setup() {
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop() {
randNumber = random(300);
Serial.println(rn);
delay(1000);
}```

a) Series of purely mathematical indeterministic random numbers
b) Series of purely mathematical deterministic random numbers
c) null
d) Series of indeterministic random numbers based on noise

Explanation: The function here attempts to generate random numbers based on the analog noise generated at one of the pins present in the board. This will create a seemingly indeterministic set of numbers ranging from 0 to 300, which is great for a random number generator function.

6. What is the output of the following line of code?

```void main() {
printf("%lu\n", sizeof(char));
}```

a) 21
b) %fdf
c) 1
d) null

Explanation: When sizeof() is used with the data types such as int, float, char, etc. It returns the amount of memory that is allocated to the respective data types.

7. What will be the output of the following code given below?

```void main() {
int a = 0;
double d = 10.21;
printf("%lu", sizeof(a + d));
}
void loop() {}```

a) 23
b) null
c) 8
d) 10.21

Explanation: The sizes of int and double are 4 and 8 respectively, a is an integer variable whereas d is a double variable. The final result will be a double in this case in order to keep the precision. Hence the output of the code is 8 bytes.

8. What does the following code do?

```void main() {
int* ptr = (int*)malloc(100 * sizeof(int));
}```

a) Static Memory Allocation
b) Static Memory Clearance
c) Dynamic Memory Allocation
d) Dynamic Memory Clearance

Explanation: The sizeof() function here is being used to allocate a block of memory. This code is dynamic because the size of int is different on different machine architectures. So we have allocated a block of memory that is enough to hold 100 integers irrespective of the size of the int data type in the machine in which this code is going to be executed.

9. What is the output of the code given below?

```void main() {
Serial.begin();
int x = 2;
printf("%d\n", sizeof(x++));
printf("x = %d", x);
}```

a) 2
b) 4
c) Runtime Error
d) null

Explanation: The output of the code will be 2 instead of 3 because inspite of the increment operator put inside the sizeof() function, the function never really processes the variable as a whole and puts into memory, but only processes the value that is held.

10. What will be the output of the following code given below?

```void main() {
int a = 10;
double d = 10.21;
printf("%lu", sizeof(a + d));
}```

a) 8
b) null
c) 9
d) 20.21

Explanation: The sizes of int and double are 4 and 8 respectively, a is an integer variable whereas d is a double variable. The final result will be a double in this case in order to keep the precision. Hence the output of the code is 8 bytes.

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