# Analog Circuits Questions and Answers – Crystal Oscillator-2

This set of Analog Circuits Question Bank focuses on “Crystal Oscillator-2”.

1. Which of the following effect illustrate the basic working of a quartz crystal oscillator?
a) Photovoltaic effect
b) Piezo electric effect
c) Electro-magnetic effect
d) Electron excitation effect

Explanation: When a voltage source is applied to a quartz crystal, it begins to produce a characteristic known as the Piezo electric effect. It is a property of a crystal by which an electrical charge produces a mechanical force by changing the shape of the crystal and vice versa, a mechanical force applied to the crystal produces an electrical charge.

2. Compared to ceramic oscillator crystal oscillators are ___________
a) Less reliable
b) Less costly
c) More accurate
d) They are same

Explanation: Quartz(crystal) oscillators are able to oscillate with desired frequency, with little needed power to operate it. The frequency is stable for a wide range of temperature with minimal frequency change around 0.001% while the same is 0.5% for a ceramic oscillator. The phenomenon of operation is almost the same though.

3. For critical application quartz oscillator is usually contained in container called ___________
a) Crystal oven
b) Crystal case
c) Silicon container
d) Crystal container

Explanation: For critical applications, the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled container. It is called a crystal oven, and can also be mounted on shock absorbers to prevent perturbation.

4. Crystal frequency characteristics depends on ___________
a) Inductive reactance connected to crystal
b) Capacitive reactance connected to crystal
c) Shape of crystal
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The crystal frequency will only depend on internal characteristics of the crystal and hence it depends on shape or ’cut’ of the crystal.

5. The crystal resonator frequency will change according to operating time, this phenomenon is termed as ___________
a) Magnus effect
b) Retrace
c) Aging
d) Moore’s effect

Explanation: Aging is the long term frequency drift of an oscillator. It occurs due to its operation circumstances and duration of power off storage. Contamination of the mass of the crystal affects the aging, as well as excess mechanical stress on the crystal over time.

6. The frequency variation error occurred when crystal is re-powered after several hours is termed as ___________
a) Magnus effect
b) Retrace
c) Aging
d) Moore’s effect

Explanation: When power is removed from an oscillator for several hours, then re-applied on it again, the frequency of this oscillator will stabilize at a slightly different value. This frequency variation error is called retrace error.

7. Measure of sensitivity of crystal oscillator output frequency to supply voltage is called ___________
a) Frequency pulling
b) Frequency ratio
c) Output ratio
d) Frequency pushing

Explanation: Every oscillator needs a supply and the operating frequency is dependent on that voltage. As the DC supply changes, the output frequency may also change and this is called frequency pushing. Frequency pulling is the change in output frequency due to change in applied load.

8. The measure of frequency change due to non- ideal load is called ____________
a) Frequency pulling
b) Frequency ratio
c) Output ratio
d) Frequency pushing

Explanation: The measure of frequency change due to non- ideal load is called frequency pulling.

9. Which of the following parameter refer to maximum available tuning voltage to the required tuning-frequency range?
a) Oscillator turning port noise
b) Oscillator reference noise
c) Power supply noise
d) Vibration induced noise

Explanation: maximum available tuning voltage to the required tuning-frequency range
Is indicated by Oscillator turning port noise.

10. Which of the following noise is caused due to sensitivity to an acceleration of crystal?
a) Oscillator reference noise
b) Oscillator turning port noise
c) Power supply noise
d) Vibration induced noise

Explanation: Quartz crystal oscillator frequency changes slightly when accelerated. This means that random and periodic mechanical vibrations in the device can cause significant phase noise in the output

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Analog Circuits.

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