# Petroleum Production Operations Questions and Answers – Classification of Formation Damage Mechanisms

This set of Advanced Petroleum Production Operations Questions and Answers focuses on “Classification of Formation Damage Mechanisms”.

1. What is absolute permeability?
a) It is the ratio of effective permeability over the absolute permeability
b) It is the ratio of absolute permeability over the effective permeability
c) It is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when only one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces
d) It is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when more than one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces

Explanation: Absolute permeability is the permeability of the rock towards the fluid flow through the porous media of the rock when the saturation of the fluid is 100% i.e. no other fluid is flowing through the micro-channels.

2. What is effective permeability?
a) It is the ratio of effective permeability over the absolute permeability
b) It is the ratio of absolute permeability over the effective permeability
c) It is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when only one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces
d) It is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when more than one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces

Explanation: Effective permeability is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when more than one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces i.e. when the saturation is less than 100%.

3. What is relative permeability?
a) It is the ratio of effective permeability over the absolute permeability
b) It is the ratio of absolute permeability over the effective permeability
c) It is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when only one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces
d) It is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when more than one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces

Explanation: Relative permeability is the ratio of effective permeability over the absolute permeability. Its value lies between 0 and 1. Due to the irreducible saturation, its value hardly approaches to 1.

4. How does reduced absolute permeability results in the formation damage mechanism?
a) Results from plugging of pore channels by induced or inherent particles
b) Results from an increase in water saturation or oil wetting of the rock
c) Results due to a decrease in water saturation
d) Results due to a decrease in gas saturation

Explanation: Reduced absolute permeability results from plugging of pore channels by induced or inherent particles. Absolute permeability is the ability to flow fluid through the porous media of permeable rock when only one type of fluid is in the rock pore spaces.

5. How does reduced relative permeability to oil result in the formation damage mechanism?
a) Results from plugging of pore channels by induced or inherent particles
b) Results from an increase in water saturation or oil wetting of the rock
c) Results due to a decrease in water saturation
d) Results due to a decrease in gas saturation

Explanation: Reduced relative permeability to oil results from increase water saturation or oil wetting of the rock. Relative permeability is the ratio of effective permeability over the absolute permeability. Its value lies between 0 and 1.
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6. How does increased viscosity of the reservoir fluid result in the formation damage mechanism?
a) Results from plugging of pore channels by induced or inherent particles
b) Results from an increase in water saturation or oil wetting of the rock
c) Results from emulsions or high-viscosity treating fluids
d) Results due to a decrease in gas saturation

Explanation: Increased viscosity of the reservoir fluid results from emulsions or high-viscosity treating fluids. This is one of the methods of formation damage mechanisms that can affect the formation to a greater extent.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Petroleum Production Operations.