This set of Advanced Bioinformatics Questions and Answers focuses on “Genome Anatomy-2”.
1. Computational resources can facilitate the analysis of bacterial genomes.
Explanation: GeneQuiz is an example of such a resource. There are Web sites that provide a complete annotation of the prokaryotic genomes that have been sequenced.
2. Telomeres hold newly replicated daughter chromosomes together.
Explanation: Centromeres hold newly replicated daughter chromosomes together. They serve as a point of attachment for pulling the chromosomes apart during cell division.
3. Prokaryotic genomes commonly have tandem repeats of sequences and include introns in protein-coding genes.
Explanation: Eukaryotic genomes commonly have tandem repeats of sequences. In addition to this they having linear chromosomes within a nucleus, and differing from prokaryotic genomes in this respect.
4. The sequences of satellite DNA fall into different types, each with a different repeat unit of length _____
a) 5–400 Mbp
b) 3–300 kbp
c) 6–900 Mbp
d) 5–200 bp
Explanation: Because of the skewed base composition of regions that have repeats, they may be purified by virtue of having different buoyant densities. The repeat unit of length is 5–200 bp and not in the scale if Mega.
5. Most of the repetitive DNA is found near the open ends of chromosomes.
Explanation: Some of it is found near the open ends of chromosomes- telomeres but Most of this repetitive DNA is found near the centromere. It is because they serve as a point of attachment for pulling the chromosomes apart during cell division.
6. Minisatellites are made up of repeat units of up to ____ and microsatellites compose of repeat units of ____ or less.
a) 25 bp, 10 bp
b) 70 bp, 6 bp
c) 80 bp, 9 bp
d) 25 bp, 4 bp
Explanation: They are also found in eukaryotic Genomes. Microsatellite repeats are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes at the telomeres, which in humans comprise hundreds of copies of a 6-bp repeat TTAGGG.
7. In nondividing cells, a mixture of lightly and darkly stained chromosomal regions called euchromatin and heterochromatin respectively, are observed.
Explanation: In nondividing cells, a mixture of lightly and darkly stained chromosomal regions called heterochromatin and euchromatin respectively, are observed. The centromeric and telomeric regions are located in the heterochromatin, which is in a compact configuration and is thought not to be transcribed.
8. Genes that are transcribed are located in the ______
c) heterochromatin and euchromatin
d) tightly bound DNA
Explanation: They are located in the less compact euchromatin. This gives the regulatory proteins the access to the genetic material.
9. ______ can comprise a large proportion of the eukaryotic genome as______
a) transposable elements, single copy sequences
b) transposable elements, repetitive sequences
c) macrosatellite DNA elements, single copy sequences
d) satellite DNA elements, single copy sequences
Explanation: Transposable elements (TEs) are thought to play an important role in the evolution of these genomes. TEs are DNA sequences that can move from one chromosomal location to another faster than the chromosome can replicate.
10. (transposable elements) TEs have the potential to _____ in number until they comprise a ____ proportion of the genome sequence.
a) decrease, large
b) decrease, micro
c) increase, micro
d) increase, large
Explanation: It is a feature already observed in many plants and animals. They remain detectable in the genome until they blend into the background sequence by mutation.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Bioinformatics.
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