This tutorial explains Linux “rsync” command, options and its usage with examples.
rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file transfers when the destination file already exists.
The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two sets of files across the network link, using an efficient checksum-search algorithm described in the technical report that accompanies this package.
Some of the additional features of rsync are:
1. Support for copying links, devices, owners, groups and permissions
2. Exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar
3. A CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore
4. Can use any transparent remote shell, including rsh or ssh
5. Does not require root privileges
6. Pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs
7. Support for anonymous or authenticated rsync servers (ideal for mirroring)
rsync [OPTION]… SRC [SRC]… [USER@]HOST:DEST
rsync [OPTION]… [USER@]HOST:SRC DEST
rsync [OPTION]… SRC [SRC]… DEST
rsync [OPTION]… [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]
rsync [OPTION]… SRC [SRC]… [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION]… rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]
recurse into directories
use relative path names
make backups (default ~ suffix)
make backups into this directory
override backup suffix
update only (don’t overwrite newer files)
copy symlinks as symlinks
copy the referent of symlinks
copy links outside the source tree
ignore links outside the destination tree
preserve hard links
preserve owner (root only)
preserve devices (root only)
handle sparse files efficiently
show what would have been transferred
copy whole files, no incremental checks
turn off –whole-file
don’t cross filesystem boundaries
checksum blocking size (default 700)
specify rsh replacement
specify path to rsync on the remote machine
auto ignore files in the same way CVS does
only update files that already exist
ignore files that already exist on the receiving side
delete files that don’t exist on the sending side
also delete excluded files on the receiving side
delete after transferring, not before
delete even if there are IO errors
don’t delete more than NUM files
keep partially transferred files
force deletion of directories even if not empty
don’t map uid/gid values by user/group name
set IO timeout in seconds
don’t exclude files that match length and time
only use file size when determining if a file should be transferred
Timestamp window (seconds) for file match (default=0)
create temporary files in directory DIR
also compare destination files relative to DIR
equivalent to –partial –progress
compress file data
exclude files matching PATTERN
exclude patterns listed in FILE
don’t exclude files matching PATTERN
don’t exclude patterns listed in FILE
print version number
run as a rsync daemon
do not detach from the parent
bind to the specified address
specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
specify alternate rsyncd port number
use blocking IO for the remote shell
turn off –blocking-io
give some file transfer stats
show progress during transfer
log file transfers using specified format
get password from FILE
limit I/O bandwidth, KBytes per second
read batch fileset starting with PREFIX
write batch fileset starting with PREFIX
show this help screen
1. Synchronize Two Directories in a Local Server
To sync two directories in a local computer, use the following rsync -zvr command.
$ rsync -zvr /var/opt/installation/inventory/ /root/temp building file list ... done sva.xml svB.xml . sent 26385 bytes received 1098 bytes 54966.00 bytes/sec total size is 44867 speedup is 1.63 $ ls -l /var/opt/installation/inventory/sva.xml /root/temp/sva.xml -r--r--r-- 1 bin bin 949 Jun 18 2009 /var/opt/installation/inventory/sva.xml -r--r--r-- 1 root bin 949 Sep 2 2009 /root/temp/sva.xml
Note: rsync doesnt preserve timestamps on sync.
2. Preserve timestamps during Sync using rsync -a
rsync option -a indicates archive mode.
$ rsync -azv /var/opt/installation/inventory/ /root/temp/ building file list ... done ./ sva.xml svB.xml . sent 26499 bytes received 1104 bytes 55206.00 bytes/sec total size is 44867 speedup is 1.63 $ ls -l /var/opt/installation/inventory/sva.xml /root/temp/sva.xml -r--r--r-- 1 root bin 949 Jun 18 2009 /var/opt/installation/inventory/sva.xml -r--r--r-- 1 root bin 949 Jun 18 2009 /root/temp/sva.xml
As you see above, rsync preserved timestamps during sync.
3. Synchronize Only One File
$ rsync -v /var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys /root/temp/ Pubkeys sent 42 bytes received 12380 bytes 3549.14 bytes/sec total size is 12288 speedup is 0.99
4. Synchronize Files From Local to Remote
$ rsync -avz /root/temp/ email@example.com:/home/abc/temp/ Password: building file list ... done ./ rpm/ rpm/Basenames rpm/Conflictname sent 15810261 bytes received 412 bytes 2432411.23 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 2.87
While doing synchronization with the remote server, you need to specify username and ip-address of the remote server. You should also specify the destination directory on the remote server. The format is username@machinename:path
5. Synchronize Files From Remote to Local
When you want to synchronize files from remote to local, specify remote path in source and local path in target as shown below.
$ rsync -avz firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/rpm /root/temp Password: receiving file list ... done rpm/ rpm/Basenames . sent 406 bytes received 15810230 bytes 2432405.54 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 2.87
6. Remote shell for Synchronization
rsync allows you to specify the remote shell which you want to use. You can use rsync ssh to enable the secured remote connection. Use rsync -e ssh to specify which remote shell to use.
$ rsync -avz -e ssh email@example.com:/var/lib/rpm /root/temp Password: receiving file list ... done rpm/ rpm/Basenames sent 406 bytes received 15810230 bytes 2432405.54 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 2.87
7. Do Not Overwrite the Modified Files at the Destination
In a typical sync situation, if a file is modified at the destination, we might not want to overwrite the file with the old file from the source. Use rsync -u option to do exactly that.
$ ls -l /root/temp/Basenames total 39088 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4096 Sep 2 11:35 Basenames $ rsync -avzu firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/rpm /root/temp Password: receiving file list ... done rpm/ sent 122 bytes received 505 bytes 114.00 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 72258.31 $ ls -lrt total 39088 -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4096 Sep 2 11:35 Basenames
8. Synchronize only the Directory Tree Structure (not the files)
$ rsync -v -d email@example.com:/var/lib/ . Password: receiving file list ... done logrotate.status CAM/ YaST2/ acpi/ sent 240 bytes received 1830 bytes 318.46 bytes/sec total size is 956 speedup is 0.46
9. View the rsync Progress during Transfer
rsync –progress option displays detailed progress of rsync execution as shown below.
$ rsync -avz --progress firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/temp/ Password: receiving file list ... 19 files to consider ./ Basenames 5357568 100% 14.98MB/s 0:00:00 (xfer#1, to-check=17/19) Conflictname 12288 100% 35.09kB/s 0:00:00 (xfer#2, to-check=16/19) . . . sent 406 bytes received 15810211 bytes 2108082.27 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 2.87
10. Delete the Files Created at the Target
If a file is not present at the source, but present at the target, you might want to delete the file at the target during rsync. In that case, use –delete option as shown below. rsync delete option deletes files that are not there in source directory.
# Source and target are in sync. Now creating new file at the target. $ > new-file.txt $ rsync -avz --delete email@example.com:/var/lib/rpm/ . Password: receiving file list ... done deleting new-file.txt ./ sent 26 bytes received 390 bytes 48.94 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 108908.55
Target has the new file called new-file.txt, when synchronize with the source with –delete option, it removed the file new-file.txt
11. Do not Create New File at the Target
If you want this feature, use –existing option with rsync command.
First, add a new-file.txt at the source.
$ > new-file.txt
Next, execute the rsync from the target.
$ rsync -avz --existing firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/rpm/ . email@example.com's password: receiving file list ... done ./ sent 26 bytes received 419 bytes 46.84 bytes/sec total size is 88551424 speedup is 198991.96
If you see the above output, it didn’t receive the new file new-file.txt
12. View the Changes Between Source and Destination
This option is useful to view the difference in the files or directories between source and destination.
At the source:
$ ls -l /var/lib/rpm -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 5357568 2010-06-24 08:57 Basenames -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12288 2008-05-28 22:03 Conflictname -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 1179648 2010-06-24 08:57 Dirnames
At the destination:
$ ls -l /root/temp -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12288 May 28 2008 Conflictname -rw-r--r-- 1 bin bin 1179648 Jun 24 05:27 Dirnames -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 0 Sep 3 06:39 Basenames
In the above example, between the source and destination, there are two differences. First, owner and group of the file Dirname differs. Next, size differs for the file Basenames.
Now let us see how rsync displays this difference. -i option displays the item changes.
$ rsync -avzi firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/temp/ Password: receiving file list ... done >f.st.... Basenames .f....og. Dirnames sent 48 bytes received 2182544 bytes 291012.27 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 20.76
In the output it displays some 9 letters in front of the file name or directory name indicating the changes. In our example, the letters in front of the Basenames (and Dirnames) says the following:
> specifies that a file is being transferred to the local host. f represents that it is a file. s represents size changes are there. t represents timestamp changes are there. o owner changed g group changed.
13. Include and Exclude Pattern during File Transfer
rsync allows you to give the pattern you want to include and exclude files or directories while doing synchronization.
$ rsync -avz --include 'P*' --exclude '*' email@example.com:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/temp/ Password: receiving file list ... done ./ Packages Providename Provideversion Pubkeys sent 129 bytes received 10286798 bytes 2285983.78 bytes/sec total size is 32768000 speedup is 3.19
In the above example, it includes only the files or directories starting with ‘P’ (using rsync include) and excludes all other files. (using rsync exclude ‘*’ )
14. Do Not Transfer Large Files
You can tell rsync not to transfer files that are greater than a specific size using rsync –max-size option.
$ rsync -avz --max-size='100K' firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/temp/ Password: receiving file list ... done ./ Conflictname Group Installtid Name Sha1header Sigmd5 Triggername sent 252 bytes received 123081 bytes 18974.31 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 367.35
max-size=100K makes rsync to transfer only the files that are less than or equal to 100K. You can indicate M for megabytes and G for gigabytes.
15. Transfer the Whole File
One of the main feature of rsync is that it transfers only the changed block to the destination, instead of sending the whole file.
If network bandwidth is not an issue for you (but CPU is), you can transfer the whole file, using rsync -W option. This will speed-up the rsync process, as it doesn’t have to perform the checksum at the source and destination.
# rsync -avzW email@example.com:/var/lib/rpm/ /root/temp Password: receiving file list ... done ./ Basenames Conflictname Dirnames Filemd5s Group Installtid Name sent 406 bytes received 15810211 bytes 2874657.64 bytes/sec total size is 45305958 speedup is 2.87
15. Do a Dry Run with rsync
If you are a newbie and using rsync and don’t know what exactly your command going do. Rsync could really mess up the things in your destination folder and then doing an undo can be a tedious job.
Use of this option will not make any changes only do a dry run of the command and shows the output of the command, if the output shows exactly same you want to do then you can remove ‘–dry-run‘ option from your command and run on the terminal.
$ rsync --dry-run --remove-source-files -zvh backup.tar /tmp/backups/ backup.tar sent 35 bytes received 15 bytes 100.00 bytes/sec total size is 16.18M speedup is 323584.00 (DRY RUN)
16. Set Bandwidth Limit and Transfer File
You can set the bandwidth limit while transferring data from one machine to another machine with the the help of ‘–bwlimit‘ option. This options helps us to limit I/O bandwidth.
$ rsync --bwlimit=100 -avzhe ssh /var/lib/rpm/ firstname.lastname@example.org:/root/tmprpm/ email@example.com's password: sending incremental file list sent 324 bytes received 12 bytes 61.09 bytes/sec total size is 38.08M speedup is 113347.05
Also, by default rsync syncs changed blocks and bytes only, if you want explicitly want to sync whole file then you use ‘-W‘ option with it.
$ rsync -zvhW backup.tar /tmp/backups/backup.tar backup.tar sent 14.71M bytes received 31 bytes 3.27M bytes/sec total size is 16.18M speedup is 1.10
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