This set of Basic Civil Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Solid Waste Management”.
1. How many major sources of solid waste are there based on their origin?
Explanation: There are broadly 9 sources of solid waste. They are residential, industrial, commercial, institutional, construction & demolition areas, municipal services, treatment plants, agriculture and biomedical.
2. Which of the below is not an idea behind solid waste management?
a) Control of waste generation
b) Storage and collection
d) Stop waste generation
Explanation: The generation of solid waste cannot be stopped. The idea behind solid waste management is to reduce and eliminate the adverse effects of these on the environment and human health.
3. The number of functional components of solid waste management are:
Explanation: The six functional components in order are waste generation (identification of waste), onsite handling & storage (at site of waste), waste collection (collecting from different sources), waste transfer (local to regional site), waste processing (sorting of reusable/recyclable) and disposal (at landfills/waste to energy).
4. The term ISWM refers to:
a) International Solid Waste Management
b) Integrated Solid Waste Management
c) Integrated Solid Waste Machine
d) International Solid Waste Mechanism
Explanation: It stands for Integrated Solid Waste Management. It refers to the selection and use of appropriate techniques for the disposal of solid waste.
5. Under which rule of Government, guidelines for solid waste management are followed today?
a) Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2000
b) Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2016
c) Solid Waste Rules, 2000
d) Solid Waste Rules, 2016
Explanation: At present, we have to follow the Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016. This new rule was notified on 8th April 2016 and it supersedes the Municipal Solid Waste Rules, 2000. This new sets of rules have been extended to all Indian local bodies.
6. The average composition of Municipal solid waste is:
a) 41% organic, 40% inert & 19% recyclable
b) 20% organic, 60% inert & 20% recyclable
c) 30% organic, 20% inert & 50% recyclable
d) 19% organic, 41% inert & 40% recyclable
Explanation: The bulk of the organic waste arrives from households and agriculture. The inert waste is generated from construction sites, demolitions, public places, etc.
7. There are __________ ways to treat waste thermally.
Explanation: The process which use heat to treat the waste are referred to as thermal treatment. These include incineration (combustion of waste & recover energy for electricity/heating), pyrolysis (decomposition of organic waste with low oxygen and high temperature), and open burning (environmentally harmful and mostly practical).
8. How many types of landfills are there?
Explanation: They are sanitary landfills, controlled dumps and bioreactor landfills. Sanitary landfills are the most common and are situated where the land features aid in decomposition. Controlled dumps are well planned sites and bioreactor landfills use superior microbiological process for decomposition.
9. Bio-medical waste can be effectively managed by thermal process.
Explanation: The thermal process uses heat in varying temperatures to disinfect the pathogens present. Autoclave & microwave process uses low heat whereas incinerator and hydroclaring uses high heat to render the waste pathogen free.
10. The WHO has classified the bio-medical waste into ___________ categories.
Explanation: The WHO has classified these into 4 categories- infectious (waste from surgeries and any material containing pathogens), pathological (tissues/organs/drugs, etc which are not required), radioactive (contaminated with radioactive substance) and others (waste from hospital housekeeping/kitchen).
11. Which gas produced in open dumps from decomposition of biodegradable waste?
Explanation: Methane is released by the decomposition under anaerobic conditions. This can cause fires and explosions and promote global warming too.
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