1. What are you predicating by the logic: ۷x: €y: loyalto(x, y).
a) Everyone is loyal to some one
b) Everyone is loyal to all
c) Everyone is not loyal to someone
d) Everyone is loyal
e) Everyone is not loyal
Explanation: ۷x denotes Everyone or all, and €y someone and loyal to is the proposition logic making map x to y.
2. Which is not Familiar Connectives in First Order Logic?
e) either a or b
Explanation: “not” is coming under propositional logic and is therefore not a connective.
3. Which is not a type of First Order Logic (FOL) Sentence?
a) Atomic sentences
b) Complex sentences
c) Quantified sentence
d) Quality Sentence
e) Simple sentence
Explanation: Quantity structure is not a FOL structure while all other are.
4. Which is not a Goal-based agent?
e) Dynamic search
Explanation: Conclusion is a statement to Goal-based agent, but is not considered as Goal-based agent.
5. A plan that describe how to take actions in levels of increasing refinement and specificity is
a) Problem solving
c) Non-hierarchical plan
d) Hierarchical plan
Explanation: A plan that describes how to take actions in levels of increasing refinement and specificity is Hierarchical (e.g., “Do something” becomes the more specific “Go to work,” “Do work,” “Go home.”) Most plans are hierarchical in nature.
6. A constructive approach in which no commitment is made unless it is necessary to do so, is
a) Least commitment approach
b) Most commitment approach
c) Nonlinear planning
d) Opportunistic planning
e) Problem based planning
Explanation: Because we are not sure about the outcome.
7. Partial order planning involves
a) Searching over the space of possible plans
b) Searching over possible situations
c) Searching the whole problem at once
d) Searching the best
e) Searching the goal
Explanation: Partial order planning involves searching over the space of possible plans, rather than searching over possible situations. The idea is to construct a plan piece-by-piece. There are two kinds of steps we can take in constructing a plan: add an operator (action), or add an ordering constraint between operators. The name “partial order planning” comes from the fact that until we add the ordering constraints, we do not specify the order in which actions are taken. This (sometimes) allows a partial order planning to avoid lots of backtracking that would slow down a state-space planner.
8. Which is true for Decision theory?
a) Decision Theory = Probability theory + utility theory
b) Decision Theory = Inference theory + utility theory
c) Decision Theory = Uncertainty + utility theory
d) Decision Theory = Probability theory + preference
e) Decision Theory = Probability theory + inference
Explanation: Utility theory to represent and reason with preference. Preference is expressed by utilities. Utilities are combined with probabilities in the general theory of rational decisions called decision theory. Decision theory, which combines probability theory with utility theory, provides a formal and complete framework for decisions (economic or otherwise) made under uncertainty-that is, in case where probabilistic descriptions appropriately capture the decision-maker’s environment.
9. Uncertainty arises in the Wumpus world because the agent’s sensors give only
a) Full & Global information
b) Partial & Global Information
c) Partial & local Information
d) Full & local information
e) Global information only
Explanation: The Wumpus world is a grid of squares surrounded by walls, where each square can contain agents and objects. The agent (you) always starts in the lower left corner, a square that will be labeled [1, 1]. The agent’s task is to find the gold, return to [1, 1] and climb out of the cave. Therefore, uncertainty is there as the agent gives partial and local information only. Global variable are not goal specific problem solving.
10. A Hybrid Bayesian network contains
a) Both discrete and continuous variables
b) Only Discrete variables
c) Only Discontinuous variable
d) Both Discrete and Discontinuous variable
e) Continuous variable only
Explanation: To specify a Hybrid network, we have to specify two new kinds of distributions: the conditional distribution for continuous variables given discrete or continuous parents, and the conditional distribution for a discrete variable given continuous parents.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Artificial Intelligence.